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Raffles Bulletin of Zoology – New Year, New Blood

With each new year comes new changes, and this year brings in some significant changes in the editorial team of the Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (RBZ), a peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by our Museum.

The Bulletin has a new Managing Editor – Dr. Jose C. E. Mendoza (a.k.a. “JC”), who had previously served as Associate Editor for Carcinology since 2013. Dr. Mendoza breaks the news to the community in his first RBZ editorial (read more here).

The previous Managing Editor, Dr. Tan Heok Hui, has taken a new portfolio in the Museum, that of Head of Operations, but is also staying on as an Associate Editor for Ichthyology.

Among his notable achievements during his 6-year term is the publication of five volumes (vols. 59–63) and 11 supplements (nos. 24–34), containing 458 articles and monographs – some of which have gone on to be among the most highly cited in the Bulletin’s history. Dr Tan has also ushered the Bulletin into modernity, publishing its first fully electronic volume (vol. 62) in 2014.

Copy & Production Editor, Mr. Jeremy Yeo, who has efficiently performed administrative, copy-editing and production duties since 2013, has also moved over with Dr. Tan to the Operations department of the museum. We thank them for their service and wish them all the best in this new stage of their careers!

Also joining the editorial team are Dr. Hwang Wei Song, as Assistant Managing Editor and concurrent Associate Editor for Entomology; new Associate Editors, Dr. Evan S. H. Quah (Herpetology) and Dr. Toh Tai Chong (Marine ecology & conservation); and new Copy & Production Editor, Ms. Clarisse Tan. Welcome aboard & good luck!

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(From left) Ms. Clarisse Tan, Dr. Hwang Wei Song, Dr. Jose C. E. Mendoza, Dr. Tan Heok Hui, and Mr. Jeremy Yeo. Photo by Cheng Yew Toon.

Harryplax severus and the Twenty-year-old Secret

A secret that evaded detection for almost 20 years has finally been uncovered with the discovery of Harryplax severus.

Sorry to disappoint all the ‘Potterheads’ out there, but this is not a synopsis of a new Harry Potter spin-off. Rather, it is a tale of how a new species of crab was discovered by LKCNHM researchers, Dr. Jose C. E. Mendoza and Prof. Peter K. L. Ng, almost twenty years since it was initially collected.

Harryplax_severus_frontal_male paratype PR.jpgFrontal view; male paratype of Harryplax severus.

The new crab species (also in a new genus) was described in a scientific article, which was published in the journal Zookeys and made available to the public last Tuesday (24 Jan. 2017, local time). [see: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.647.11455]

Seaside Exploration

The crab was found in the late 1990’s in the coral reef rubble on the Pacific island of Guam by Harry Conley, a former US marine. Mr. Conley started to frequent this western Pacific island in the 1980’s in search of seashells, but his forays into the reefs yielded not only seashells, but also crabs and other creatures, which formed a sizeable personal collection.

After Harry Conley’s death in 2002, his crab collection was presented to Prof. Ng by Dr. Gustav Paulay (then with the University of Guam) for further study. Many of these specimens were eventually shown to be new or rare species, with several resulting scientific publications.

Two small specimens, however, were somehow overlooked and would remain in the collection of the LKCNHM until they were re-examined in early 2015 by the museum’s crustacean curator, Dr. Mendoza. Together with Prof. Ng, they determined that the crabs belonged to a new genus and species based on several unique characteristics in their anatomy.

harryplax_severus_male-paratype-prDorsal view; male paratype of Harryplax severus.

This tiny crab (7.62 mm long by 5.08 mm wide) has adaptations such as small eyes, well-developed antennae, and long, slender legs, which help it feel quite at home in the dark cavities amidst the reef rubble.

Potterhead’s Wish

Why the name Harryplax severus, then?

Well, the genus name, Harryplax, was primarily chosen in honour of the crab’s original collector, Mr. Harry Conley, whose collection of ‘critters’ found in the rubble beds of Guam have contributed greatly to the field of marine science.

The name also alludes to a famous pop culture namesake, Harry Potter, the main protagonist of the fantasy novel series by J. K. Rowling, whose magical skills are likened to Mr. Conley’s ability to find rare and fascinating creatures.

The species name, severus (Latin for ‘harsh’, ‘rough’ and ‘rigorous’), highlights the tough and strenuous steps undertaken to collect the crab. Furthermore, it alludes to yet another namesake from the Harry Potter series, Professor Severus Snape, a character described by Dr. Mendoza as “notorious and misunderstood”. Just like how Professor Snape managed to conceal one of the most important secrets in the story, the new species of crab has also been able to evade discovery for almost 20 years since its initial collection.

peter_jc_lkcnhmLKCNHM Researchers; Prof. Peter Ng (left) and Dr. Mendoza (right).

A self-confessed ‘Potterhead’, Dr. Mendoza could not pass up the opportunity to name the new discovery after characters from the popular series, a move gamely accepted by Prof. Ng, who knew Mr. Conley personally and felt that he would have appreciated the connection.

We look forward to more interesting discoveries by Dr. Mendoza and Prof. Ng in the future!

Original article:

Mendoza JCE, Ng PKL (2017) Harryplax severus, a new genus and species of an unusual coral rubble-inhabiting crab from Guam (Crustacea, Brachyura, Christmaplacidae). Zookeys, 647: 23–35.

A Crabby Acquisition

Here at the museum, most of our specimens are collected from the research field, received through donations from other museums, or via reports of dead animals by the public.

In some instances, we also collect specimens through more ‘conventional’ means — the market! In fact, we often make it a point to visit local markets in our various field sites across Southeast Asia, as you never know what interesting critter will pop up. After all, the Sulawesi Coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis), was discovered by Dr. Mark Erdmann in a Manado fish market while on his honeymoon!

Recently, Prof Peter Ng, LKCNHM head, collected an interesting specimen through similar means. He was having dinner at Turf City one evening when he came across an interesting live crab in one of the aquariums, and promptly bought the crab from the seafood joint. Saved from a certain fate of ending up on a dinner plate, the specimen was instead destined for the collection shelves at the museum.

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Top, bottom and close up views of the Golden King Crab. Photo by Tan Heok Hui.

This crab was later identified as a Golden King Crab (Lithodes aequispinus). According to Prof Ng, adults of this species can be as large, if not larger than their more famous counterparts, the Alaskan King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus).

Even though it looks crab-like, it is not a ‘true’ crab but actually related to hermit crabs. If you are confused, count the number of legs seen in this crab, and compare it with the mangrove mud crab, Scylla spp.  🙂

The crab’s origins were even more of a surprise as it was said to be from Korea, and if so, may be the first record of the species there.

Golden king crabs are not only found in East Asian waters which includes countries like South Korea, but can also be found in the Northern Pacific Ocean ranging from British Columbia in Canada all the way to Japan.

The crab is now awaiting final preparations at our laboratory before it is added to our wet collections along with other crustacean specimens. It will be invaluable as a future research specimen for comparative work and DNA studies.

The next time you visit a market, keep your eyes peeled out for interesting and unusual animals — they may be right under your nose!

Scientist Feature: Dr Yang Chien-Hui

    

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Dr Yang Chien-Hui sorting out crustacean specimens at the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum. Photo by Chia Han Shen

When one hears of the word crustacean, seafood is what usually comes to mind and rings the dinner bell. But for Dr Yang Chien-Hui, these sea creatures pique interest in a different sense. They are her life’s work and she has dedicated to studying their biology, genetics and natural history.

Dr Yang, is a post-doctoral research fellow from the Institute of Marine Biology at the National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU). The university’s location next to the sea as a backdrop within a port city and makes it an ideal spot for conducting studies on the mysterious creatures that inhabit the world’s oceans.

As a child, Dr Yang would make frequent trips to the beach in her hometown of Kaohsiung. Playing and exploring the intertidal zone and rock pools initiated her to the fascinating world of crustaceans. Where she observed hermit crabs amongst the fishes, barnacles, clams and mussels. Hermit crabs are among her favourites and hold a special place in her childhood memories.

This love for crustaceans led her to pursue her studies at the NTOU. Her in depth studies on a plethora of sea crustaceans as an undergraduate further cemented her passion and focus in understanding bottom dwelling crustaceans of the deep. In particular, slipper lobsters are most favoured.

There are actually three families of lobsters: slipper lobsters, spiny lobsters and true lobsters. Slipper lobsters can be found worldwide at the bottom of oceanic continental shelves and have an antennae that is enlarged and flattened like a shield. Spiny lobsters as their name suggests have protective spines that cover their body and have no claws. True lobsters have two modified front legs, which serve as claws and are known as clawed lobsters too. All of them are commercially important crustaceans.

What has made her slipper lobster research endearing is studying their evolutionary history. Dr Yang has discovered new species of slipper lobsters found in Asian Pacific waters as part of her PHD thesis. She describes it as “a great sense of achievement” and opens up opportunities for “unknown specimens or species to be discovered by hand”.

Dr Yang is now based at the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum (LKCNHM) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) on a nine-week stint assisting in sorting out crustacean specimens in the museum’s collection, specifically decapods. Decapods are invertebrates with ten legs and usually refer to crabs, prawns, shrimp and lobsters.

Asked of her visits to Singapore, Dr Yang has enjoyed the clean, safe, warm, food-loving environment. She enjoys the generous hospitality of people and the tropical climate here, as she “sometimes reckons that Taiwan is too cold for her”.

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Slipper lobsters in a wet market in Singapore. Photo by Dr Yang Chien-Hui.

 

    

LKCNHM Specimens at the Singapore Art Museum

Our conservator, Kate Pocklington, recently collaborated with artist, Lucy Davis, on two exhibits at the Singapore Art Museum as part of an exhibition—Unearthed. Unearthed contains exhibits by artists in Singapore that offer a look into how they as city dwellers view and respond to the natural world.

Kate at Unearthed. Photo by: Kate Pocklington

Kate at Unearthed. Photo by: Kate Pocklington

The two exhibits that Kate was involved with are All the Way Down and Nanyang Meadows. These contain material that were used to stuff two large specimens from the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum (formerly the Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research) that Kate discovered during her work. Kate elaborates: “[Lucy Davis] has been working on the stories of 2 specimens and what are found inside them. She’s used the crocodile and a tortoise… and has been in touch with R. Hanitsch’s [former director of the Raffles Museum] family to bring together as many stories and history as possible.”

“If you get the chance to go, please do, the setup of this exhibit in particular is extremely well done and demonstrates proper, smart and quality work, lighting and info.”

The exhibition is on at the Singapore Art Museum till 6 July 2014.